Devereux apparently had much of the lumber and furnishings shipped from Shreveport, ninety miles away. Sarah Ford and Anthony Christopher interviews, Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1938, Library of Congress Archives. [47] The last battle of the war was fought at Palmito Ranch near Brownsville, in 1865. The whiter and more molasses-free the sugar, the higher its price. By 1850 the plantation had seventy-four slaves and produced 120 bales of cotton; it was among the 100 largest producers in Texas at the time. [18] Slaveholders trying to enter Mexico would force their slaves to sign contracts claiming that the slaves owed money and would work to pay the debt. That year Mexico made the importation of slaves illegal. Photo: Jon Shapley, Houston Chronicle / Staff photographer. reset. Records mention the punishment of slaves by whipping, including two “run-aways” who were recaptured and fitted with irons of some type to secure them, and the attempt to sell one person who was considered to be too troublesome to manage. But earlier this month, the site’s owner — Sienna, the master-planned subdivision that was, until recently known as Sienna Plantation — refused to let her and a team even visit the site for a few hours. Late in his life Columbus Patton was declared mentally unstable in court by his relatives, and institutionalized in South Carolina in 1854. He died there of typhoid dysentery in 1857. Most worked as house servants or on farms on the edges of towns, but others served as cooks and waiters in hotels, as teamsters or boatmen, or as coachmen and skilled artisans, such as blacksmiths, carpenters, and barbers. (Brazoria County Probate Records, Case #690, file#3, March 1860), By the fall of 1867, Rachel had moved back to Brazoria County and continued to receive an annual allowance and make purchases with local merchants charged to the Patton estate. Or follow her on Facebook, where she spends way too much time. Because the economy of the South depended on the cultivation of crops, the need for agricultural labor led to the establishment of slavery.It also created a society sharply divided along class lines. The other plantation buildings included a kitchen, the doctor's house, Bachelor Hall for entertaining guests, a dairy, and quarters for the house slaves. Slaveowners may not free their slaves without Congressional approval unless the freed slaves leave Texas. The remains of sugar plantations have special historic significance, notes James Sidbury, a Rice professor who studies the history of race and slavery. [43] Later newspaper accounts revealed that most of what was confessed under torture appeared to be false. [9] When some French and Spanish slaveholders moved to Texas, they were allowed to retain their slaves. A [16] That year, the American Stephen F. Austin was granted permission to bring Anglo settlers into Texas. Settlements grew and developed more land under cultivation in cotton and other commodities. Dr. Cary Cordova, The Enslaved People of Patton Plantation, Brazoria County, Texas, research report, submitted to Varner-Hogg Plantation State Historical Park, May 20, 2000. Subcategories. Bernardo Plantation, one of the plantation homes of Jared E. Groce, was located on a high bluff on the Brazos River four miles south of the site of present Hempstead in Waller County. Texas State Archives. Yes, I would like to begin receiving history-rich content, news, and updates from TSHA. [3] Five years later, in September 1534, they escaped to the interior. He tried to create a Republic of Sierra Madre in Northern Mexico but was defeated by the Mexican Army.[41]. The exact number of people is difficult to determine because of variations in spelling, the Patton family’s frequent movement of enslaved individuals from one plantation to another, and the lease of laborers from neighbors and associates. The TSHA makes every effort to conform to the principles of fair use and to comply with copyright law. After the Texas Revolution ended in 1836, the Constitution of the Republic of Texas made slavery legal. ELLERSLY PLANTATION. Members of the large and wealthy Patton family moved from Kentucky to Texas beginning in the early 1830s.Columbus Patton purchased 4,428 acres of Martin Varner’s property in 1834, including the current location known as the Varner-Hogg Plantation State Historic Site. The governors feared the growth in the Anglo-American population in Texas, and for various reasons, by the early 19th century, they and their superiors in Mexico City disapproved of expanding slavery. Waters at one point became the wealthiest man in Fort Bend County and one of the largest slave owners. She was 60. I Was Born in Slavery. The province continued to attract free blacks and escaped slaves from the Southern United States. Planters had hundreds of slaves arrested and questioned forcefully. Slavery had been theoretically abolished by President Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation which proclaimed, in 1863, that only slaves located in territories that were in rebellion from the United States were free. The eastern quarter of the state, where cotton production depended on thousands of slaves, is considered the westernmost extension of the Deep South. Signs advertising homes in the Sienna Plantation community, photographed on Thursday, Oct. 10, 2019, in Missouri City. By the 1850s, sugar was a major industry in Fort Bend, Matagorda, Wharton, and Brazoria counties, which became known as the Sugar Bowl of Texas. The system of school support was inadequate, and schools for racial minorities were seriously underfunded. Tracing the history of enslaved peoples owned by Columbus Patton and other members of his family is possible through the examination of plantation records, probate court cases, slave census records, and agreements between members of the Patton family “leasing” individuals for labor from one property to another. According to the 1860 Census, he owned 216 slaves, which made him the third-largest slaveowner in Texas. Email her at lisa.gray@chron.com. / Although slavery arrived much later in Texas than it did in many other Southern states, the institution was certainly no stranger in Waco and Central Texas in the mid-1800s. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Plantation houses in Texas. Walker laments that over the years, items he photographed — such as a metal plaque identifying the maker of the sugar mill’s steam engine — have disappeared from the mill’s site, apparently stolen by vandals. [38] Unlike most southern states, Texas did not explicitly ban education of slaves, but most slave owners did not allow the practice. White Texans were fearful about slave revolts, and as in other southern states, rumors of uprisings took hold rapidly, often in times of economic and social tension. Some information about former Patton family slaves can be traced in the Brazoria County census of 1880. Through organizations such as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), African Americans continued to work to regain their ability to exercise their civil and voting rights as citizens. To circumvent the law, numerous Anglo-American colonists converted their slaves to indentured servants, but with life terms.

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